Future studies are needed to test mechanisms through which these community-level factors may be operating.
Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a significant public health problem.
Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever have traditionally affected children, with rare cases in adults, but over the past decades, a shift toward older age groups has been observed (1–3).
In the 1980s, the mean age of clinical cases was 8–10 years, but among cases reported during 2002–2008, it had increased to 18 years.
) is a rare, poorly known species of deep-sea shark.
Dengue disease has been a major public health problem in Thailand over the past 50 years.Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections, and it increases the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 at least twofold.Individual-level factors are insufficient to explain geographic and population variation in HSV-2, suggesting the need to identify ecologic factors.Fifteen percent were infected with HSV-2, and there was significant variation in HSV-2 prevalence among communities.After controlling for individual-level factors, the authors identified community-level factors, including socioeconomic status and the presence of injection drug users, that were independently associated with HSV-2 and explained 11% of the variance in prevalence.